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The Doughnut (or Donut Economy) is an economic model that measures economic prosperity by looking at the realization of a social foundation without exceeding ecological ceilings. Simply put, the goal is to realize everyone's needs within the carrying capacity of Earth. The name 'doughnut' is taken from the shape of the diagram: a circle with a hole in the middle. The hole in the model shows how many people do not have access to basic necessities such as health care, education and housing. The crust shows the extent to which the ecological ceilings (planetary boundaries), on which life depends, are exceeded. According to the model, an economy is prosperous if all 12 elements of the social foundation (SDG origin) are secured without exceeding an ecological ceiling (9 elements). The situation is described in the model as 'the safe and just space for humanity'. The diagram was developed by Oxford economist Kate Raworth in a report for Oxfam called 'A Safe and Just Space for Humanity'. She developed the model further in her book 'Doughnut Economics: Seven ways to think like a 21st-century economist'.